AskDefine | Define aristocratic

Dictionary Definition

aristocratic adj : belonging to or characteristic of the nobility or aristocracy; "an aristocratic family"; "aristocratic Bostonians"; "aristocratic government"; "a blue family"; "blue blood"; "the blue-blooded aristocracy"; "of gentle blood"; "patrician landholders of the American South"; "aristocratic bearing"; "aristocratic features"; "patrician tastes" [syn: aristocratical, blue, blue-blooded, gentle, patrician]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

sc=Grek compare with French aristocratique.

Pronunciation

  • /ˌæɹɪstəˈkɹætɪk/, /%

Extensive Definition

Aristocracy is a hereditary form of government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations. Power is maintained by a hereditary elite, from a caste, class, family (or even some individuals).
Aristocracies have most often been hereditary plutocracies (see below), with a belief in their own superiority. Aristocracies often include a monarch who although a member of the aristocracy rules over the aristocracy as well as the rest of society. Aristocracy can also refer to the highest class in society even if they do not rule directly. They are usually under the leaders of the country in the ladder of status.
The term "aristocracy" is derived from the Greek aristokratia, meaning the rule of the best.

History

The term "aristocracy" was first given in Athens to young citizens (the men of the ruling class) who led armies from the front line. Since military bravery was such a highly regarded virtue in ancient Greece, it was assumed that the armies were being led by "the best". From the ancient Greeks, the term passed on to the European Middle Ages for a similar hereditary class of military leaders often referred to as the "nobility". As in ancient Greece, this was a slave-holding class of privileged men whose military role allowed them to present themselves as the most "noble", or "best".
In India, these men are usually of the martial or Kshatriya caste such as the Gujjars and Rajputs and their sub-divisions.
In the Islamic world, the aristocratic caste of Sayyid belongs exclusively to the descendants of Muhammad's immediate family babys and extends to all classes of society. This is usually distinguished from the ordinary use of "Sayyid" to mean 'Sir' or 'Lord'.
The French Revolution attacked aristocrats as people who had achieved their status by birth rather than by merit, such as being considered unjust. The term had become synonymous with people who claim luxuries and privileges as a birthright. In the United Kingdom and other European countries in which hereditary titles are still recognised, "aristocrat" still refers to the descendant of one of approximately 7,000 families with hereditary titles, usually still in possession of considerable wealth, though not necessarily so.
In the United States and other nations without a history of a hereditary military caste, aristocracy has taken on a more stylistic meaning. It also can refer to those, like the Roosevelts, whose families came to the United States early in its history, acquired large holdings and have been able to hang onto their wealth through many generations. In the American south, particularly in former Confederate states, the term southern aristocracy refers to those families that acquired large land holdings before the Civil War and remain wealthy landowners to this day, or to families that lost their wealth in the 19th century but continue to insist on deference. In some cases, especially the latter, the usage is pejorative and refers to purveyors of snobbery, but "aristocrat" can also refer to an elegant person with a gracious lifestyle and strong sense of duty.

Comparison with other forms of government

As a government term, aristocracy can be compared with:
  • autocracy - "rule by a single individual", such as a dictator or absolute monarch.
  • meritocracy - "rule by those who most deserve to rule". While this appears to be the same as the original meaning of "aristocracy", the term "meritocracy" has usually implied a much more fluid form of government in which one is, at most, considered "best" for life, but must continually prove one's "merit" in order to stay in power. This power is not passed on to descendants.
  • plutocracy - "rule by the wealthy". In actual practice, aristocrats' wealth allows them to portray their own virtues as the "best" ones. Usually, this wealth is passed down through inheritance, and in countries like England may be kept intact through primogeniture, in which the oldest child (usually first male) inherits the bulk of the wealth and titles.
  • oligarchy - "rule by the few". Whether an aristocracy is also an oligarchy depends entirely upon one's idea of what is a "few".
  • monarchy - "rule by a single individual". Historically, the vast majority of monarchs have been aristocrats themselves. However, they have also been very often at odds with the rest of the aristocracy, since it was composed of their rivals. The struggle between a ruling dynastic family and the other aristocratic families in the same country has been a central theme of medieval history.
  • democracy - "rule by the majority". Democracy and aristocracy are incompatible as forms of government due to the hereditary nature of power in an aristocratic system. Exclusion of this was Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where kind of democracy of nobility (szlachta) existed.

References

Further reading

  • Beerbohm, Max, Zuleika Dobson.
  • Bence-Jones, Mark. The Viceroys of India. Curzon family.
  • Brough, James. Consuelo: Portrait of an American Heiress Consuelo Vanderbilt's marriage to the Duke of Marlborough. Marlborough family.
  • Bush, Michael L. The English Aristocracy: a Comparative Synthesis. Manchester University Press, 1984. Concise comparative historical treatment.
  • Bush, Michael L. Noble Privilege. (The European Nobility, vol. 1) Manchester University Press, 1983.
  • Cannadine, David, 1998 Aspects of Aristocracy (series Penguin History) ISBN 0-14-024953-2. Essays on class issues, aristocratic family norms, careers.
  • Cannadine, David. The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy. Yale University Press, 1990.
  • Channon, Sir Henry. Chips: The Diaries of Sir Henry Channon Robert Rhodes James, editor. Excerpts from the diaries of a privileged observer, 1934–53.
  • Country Life Magazine, Documenting houses, gardens, pictures, horses, local history, debutantes since 1897.
  • Forster, E. M., Howard's End.
  • Galsworthy, John. The Forsyte Saga
  • Girouard, Mark. Life in the English Country House : A Social and Architectural History
  • Halperin, John. Eminent Georgians: The Lives of King George V, Elizabeth Bowen, St. John Philby, & Nancy Astor
  • James, Henry. The novels.
  • Jullian, Philippe. Prince of aesthetes: Count Robert de Montesquiou, 1855-1921. Montesquiou family; the Decadent movement and the original of Proust's Baron de Charlus.
  • Lacey, Robert. Aristocrats. Little, Brown, 1983.
  • Lampedusa, G., The Leopard novel.
  • Lovell, Mary S. The Sisters: The Saga of the Mitford Family.
  • Mitford, Jessica. Hons and Rebels. ISBN 1-59017-110-1
  • Mitford, Nancy, Love in a Cold Climate
  • Montagu of Beaulieu, Lord (Edward John Barrington Douglas-Scott-Montagu). More equal than others: The changing fortunes of the British and European aristocracies. St. Martin, 1970.
  • Morton, Henry. The Rothschilds.
  • Nicholson, Nigel. Portrait of a Marriage : Vita Sackville-West and Harold Nicolson
  • Pearson, John. The Sitwells: A Family's Biography
  • Pine, Leslie G. Tales of the British Aristocracy. Burke Publishing Co. 1956.
  • Prochaska, F. K., editor, 2002. Royal Lives ISBN 0-19-860530-7 (Lives series) Excerpted official biographies from the Dictionary of National Biography
  • Proust, Marcel, The Guermantes' Way, Sodom and Gomorrah. The closed circle of French aristocracy after 1870.
  • Sutherland, Douglas, The Fourth Man: The story of Blunt, Philby, Burgess, and Maclean The double career of Sir Anthony Blunt, Keeper of the Queen's Works of Art and spy.
  • The Tatler Magazine.
  • Trollope, Anthony The Plantagenet Palliser series of Parliamentary novels.
  • Wasson, Ellis, Aristocracy and the Modern World, Palgrave Macmillan 2006.
  • Waugh, Evelyn. Brideshead Revisited
  • Waugh, Evelyn, Decline and Fall.
  • Winchester, Simon. Their Noble Lordships: Class and Power in Modern Britain. Faber & Faber, 1981.
aristocratic in Arabic: أرستقراطية
aristocratic in Bosnian: Aristokratija
aristocratic in Bulgarian: Аристокрация
aristocratic in Catalan: Aristocràcia
aristocratic in Danish: Aristokrati
aristocratic in German: Aristokratie
aristocratic in Estonian: Aristokraatia
aristocratic in Spanish: Aristocracia
aristocratic in Esperanto: Aristokratio
aristocratic in Basque: Aristokrazia
aristocratic in Persian: آریستوکراسی
aristocratic in French: Aristocratie
aristocratic in Galician: Aristocracia
aristocratic in Croatian: Aristokracija
aristocratic in Indonesian: Aristokrasi
aristocratic in Icelandic: Aðalsveldi
aristocratic in Italian: Aristocrazia
aristocratic in Hebrew: אריסטוקרטיה
aristocratic in Georgian: არისტოკრატია
aristocratic in Latvian: Aristokrātija
aristocratic in Lithuanian: Aristokratija
aristocratic in Hungarian: Arisztokrácia
aristocratic in Macedonian: Аристократија
aristocratic in Dutch: Aristocratie
aristocratic in Japanese: 貴族制
aristocratic in Norwegian: Aristokrati
aristocratic in Norwegian Nynorsk: Aristokrati
aristocratic in Polish: Arystokracja
aristocratic in Portuguese: Aristocracia
aristocratic in Romanian: Aristocraţie
aristocratic in Russian: Аристократия
aristocratic in Simple English: Aristocracy
aristocratic in Slovenian: Aristokracija
aristocratic in Serbian: Аристократија
aristocratic in Serbo-Croatian: Aristokracija
aristocratic in Finnish: Aristokratia
aristocratic in Swedish: Aristokrati
aristocratic in Thai: อภิชนาธิปไตย
aristocratic in Turkish: Aristokrasi
aristocratic in Ukrainian: Аристократія
aristocratic in Chinese: 贵族制

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

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